In order to successfully work in the chosen specialty, a modern young specialist, along with deep theoretical knowledge, must have the necessary skills and abilities to effectively apply them in practice. This is achieved through the practical training of students in the learning process. Practical training, along with classes and independent work, is one of the important forms of organization of the educational process, the quality of which depends on the competitiveness of graduates of higher education institutions in the labor market.
The list of all types of practices, their forms, duration, duration are determined by the standards of higher education and are given in the curricula and schedules of the educational process.
Depending on the specific specialty or specialization of students, the main types of practice are:
- educational (introduction to the specialty, computer, excursion, introductory, educational-swimming, geodetic, educational workshop on computer science, educational-analytical, etc.);
- production (professional training, internship in the profession, complex in the specialty, production-swimming, technological, metalwork, repair (partially can be carried out on the ship during the voyage) operational, economic, organizational and managerial, accounting and analytical, planning and economic, etc.);
- Master’s internship;
Other types of practice are possible, which are determined by the curricula of specialties and specializations.
Educational practice is conducted in order to consolidate students’ theoretical knowledge, acquaintance with the production and specifics of the future specialty, obtaining primary professional skills and abilities in general professional and special disciplines, giving students the opportunity to master the working profession in mass specialties.
Training practice is carried out, as a rule, on the basis of the University or enterprises that correspond to the end-to-end practice programs and the direction of the specialist training.
The internship is conducted in order to consolidate and deepen students’ theoretical knowledge gained in the study of a cycle of special disciplines, acquisition of professional skills and abilities in the specialty, practical experience of organizational and managerial activities in the workforce, professional thinking, collecting factual material for course projects (works).
Students who before entering the University (or at the beginning of the internship) have a set of practical skills in the specialty may be exempted from the internship on the condition of providing documents provided with a certificate of employment, employment record book, or employment contract, certificate of qualification category, etc.), confirming the length of service, not less than the period of practice provided by the curriculum of the specialty/specialization. Enrollment of work experience in the relevant position as practical training is carried out in agreement with the head of practice from the University, the head of the profile department. Such students are certified for practical training for the relevant course by a note on the differentiated test in the relevant test and examination information.
Applications from students addressed to the head of the relevant graduating department with a request to release from the internship with copies of relevant documents confirming the required length of service and qualifications agreed with the head of the internship from the University are considered before the internship period. The mentioned applications with the corresponding resolution of the head of the department are transferred to the department of practice together with the reports of the department on practice in accordance with the established procedure.
The approximate list of positions and length of service in these positions for students of the Institute of Management, Technology and Law and for the Kyiv Institute of Railway Transport are usually at least 6 (six) months, but in any case not less than the curriculum.
Students who have been discharged from their internship due to their seniority may not submit a written internship report. The need to submit a written report is determined by the specific practice.
Undergraduate practice of students is carried out before the qualification work or diploma project (work). Undergraduate practice is conducted in order to deepen and consolidate theoretical knowledge in all disciplines of the curriculum, generalization of acquired knowledge, practical skills, collection and processing of factual material for qualifying work, diploma project, state exams.
The internship is a mandatory component of the educational and professional program for obtaining a master’s degree and aims to provide students with professional skills and abilities to carry out independent research activities. It aims to consolidate the theoretical knowledge gained by students during training, acquisition and improvement of practical skills and abilities in the process of professional activity, development of students’ ability to make competent decisions in industrial situations, mastering modern methods and forms of research.
Assistant practice is one of the forms of organization of the educational process, which is aimed at acquiring skills in professional pedagogical activities, which allows to connect theoretical learning with the practical activities of students. The main purpose of pedagogical (assistant) practice is the acquisition by students of basic skills and abilities of pedagogical activity, preparation of students for the educational process, formation of their professional qualities of a teacher through their inclusion in the educational process of an educational institution.
Individual practice. In exceptional cases, the relevant practice may be conducted in terms that do not correspond to the schedule of the educational process (family circumstances, going abroad on a student exchange program, etc.). In this case, the practice is called individual according to the curriculum (for example, individual undergraduate practice).
Individual internship is conducted on the basis of the student’s application, agreed with the teacher-head of practice, head of the relevant department, dean of the faculty, department of practice and employment of students and graduates and director of the institute. The application is accompanied by a copy of the document confirming the need for internship by the student in a period that does not coincide with the curriculum.